THUNK – 107. Graham’s Number & Number Sense

Graham’s number is…really really big. But our brains start throwing errors at much smaller quantities.

-Links for the Curious-

Numberphile’s fantastic video of Ron Graham explaining Graham’s number –

“Two Systems of Non-Symbolic Numerical Cognition” by D. Hyde, a review of research on the two psychological systems for cognitive representation of number –

A summary of some landmark studies regarding the cognitive representation of number –

A great Wikipedia summary of some of the creatures which have demonstrated some capacity for number sense –

A study showing the gradual “linearization” of the approximate number system’s logarithmic error allowance during childhood –

An analysis of possible evolutionary reasons the approximate number system is mapped logarithmically –

The 2014 paper which improved on Graham’s upper limit to his Ramsey theorem question –

THUNK – 106. The Toulmin Method of Argumentation

Think you may get into some arguments during the holidays? Steven Toulmin & Reddit can help.

-Links for the Curious-

“The Uses of Argument” by Steven Toulmin –

A summary of the Toulmin method as rendered by Colorado State University –

Winning Arguments: Interaction Dynamics and Persuasion
Strategies in Good-faith Online Discussions

THUNK – 105. Why Elections Suck

There are a lot of people unhappy with the most recent presidential election in the US, & they have good reason – it needs fixing.

-Links for the Curious-

FairVote, an organization advocating for more representative & fair electoral systems –

A simple online tool to determine who your elected representatives are. (Protip: phonecalls are harder to ignore.) –

A paper by the EAC detailing the historical basis of the electoral college & some of its flaws –

C.G.P. Grey’s fantastic series “Politics in the Animal Kingdom” –

THUNK Episode 95 – Duverger’s Law & Ingroup Bias –

THUNK Episode 104 – Ethics Overview & Moral Voting –

Podcast 1 – Simone Chavoor on the Argumentative Theory of Human Reason

In this podcast, I discuss THUNK episode 64 with Simone Chavoor, a writer, marketing guru, and trivia master from Oakland, California. We talk about cognitive biases, the recent election, serial killers, vacuum metastability events, & birthing.

Some links for flavor:

The THUNK episode in question –

An article about Charles Manson’s “How to Win Friends & Influence People” turning point –

Bloody Code (from Simone’s Wiki-Walk) –

The Ultimate Fate of the Universe (from Josh’s Wiki-Walk) –

Elephant birthing video –

Giraffe birthing video –

THUNK – 104. Ethics Overview & Moral Voting

Some believe that voting a certain way this election is right/wrong. Let’s look at some ethics & see why.

-Links for the Curious-

First thing’s first, a shout-out to my friend Kevin Greenlee (who’s got legit degrees in philosophy & doctrinal theology). His fascinating article on Christian morality in this election is what kicked this whole thing off –

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy’s brilliant summary of deontology –

On consequentialism –

On virtue ethics –

A summary of Bentham’s utilitarianism –

A summary of Kant’s CI from MIT –

GEM Anscombe’s “Modern Moral Philosophy,” which kicked off the modern revival of virtue ethics –

THUNK – 103. On Rand-Bashing

Ayn Rand & her “selfish” ideology of objectivism produce both fervor & ridicule…but why?

-Links for the Curious-

A searchable online repository of Rand’s writings (including all quotes cited here) –

Branden’s retrospective personal statement regarding the character of Rand, her philosophy, & her “collective” –

The Partially Examined Life does a *very* charitable reading & conservative rebuttal of many of Rand’s philosophical works –

The evolutionary origin of human hyper-cooperation (an observation of the role of altruism in evolutionary biology that prima facie refutes many of Rand’s claims) –

THUNK – 102. Dimensional Analysis

Dimensional analysis is awesome, but human brains are depressingly easy to distract with number-crunching.

-Links for the Curious-

Randall Monroe’s “what if?” blog –

A simplified version of Maxwell’s dimensional analysis of the speed of light –

A history of units & dimensional analysis –

Sources of Mathematical Thinking, Dehaene et. al. 1999 –

Summary of the paper from MIT news –

THUNK – 99. Braitenberg’s “Vehicles” & the Chinese Room

Braitenberg’s “Vehicles,” Searle’s Chinese room, & Cole’s “Virtual Minds” – some thoughts on thinking machines.

-Links for the Curious-

Some selections from Valentino Braitenberg’s “Vehicles” –

Alan Turing’s fantastic 1950 paper “Computing Machinery & Intelligence” –

John Searle’s paper, cited over 5000 times, about the Chinese Room argument –

David Cole’s “Artificial Intelligence & Personal Identity,” where he posits the mechanism of virtual minds –

A quick note: the response that I end up advocating in the end here is spiritually similar to a sort of philosophical “Pragmatism.” If you’d like to read some more about it, check out its entry in the SEP here:

The SEP article on “functionalism,” one of the philosophies of mind characterized here –

THUNK – 98. Mixed Reality & “Game” Design

Maybe VR isn’t a specific thing, but part of a continuum of physical/virtual experience called “mixed reality.” Regardless of how you think about it, the virtual already plays a significant role in your life, & game designers (as terrible a name as that is) are the ones building your future.

-Links for the Curious-

Paul Milgrim & Fumio Kishino’s foundational 1994 paper on mixed reality –

An article detailing Tencent’s new credit rating app & its truly frightening potential –

Jesse Schell’s 2010 DICE talk, detailing his unique vision of the future as built by game designers –

YouTube channel “Extra Credits,” a great resource for beginning to learn about some of the aspects of game design that are being used to build our virtual future –

THUNK – 97. Autonomous Vehicle Ethics…?

There’s a lot of talk about the ethics of autonomous vehicles…but maybe it’s not as big a deal as people are making it.

-Links for the Curious-

Patrick Lin’s “The Ethical Dilemma of Self-Driving Cars –

“Why Self-Driving Cars Must be Programmed to Kill” –

“How to Help Self-Driving Cars Make Ethical Decisions” –

A chapter from a book on autonomous vehicles written by Lin, detailing many of his arguments for ethical AV design –

“Reciprocal Collision Avoidance for Multiple Car-like Robots”, a paper detailing many of the challenges of creating networked automated vehicles (let alone independent ones) –

“Driver Killed While Using Tesla’s ‘Autopilot’ Feature” –

Some details about the Apple petition to ban the use of toxic chemicals in some of their manufacturing facilities –

THUNK – 96. The Replication Crisis & Belief Perseverence

The sciences are dealing with a crisis of replication…and that’s a *good* thing. How might we learn from them?

-Links for the Curious-

“Psychology is in Crisis Over Whether It’s in Crisis” –

“1500 scientists lift the lid on reproducibility” –

Self-enhancement & belief perseverance –

Abstract & concrete data in the perseverance of social theories: When weak data lead to unshakeable beliefs –

Perseverance in self-perception and social perception: biased attributional processes in the debriefing paradigm –

THUNK – 86. Cognitive Biases & the Socratic Method –

THUNK – 72. Logic –

THUNK – 73. Rigor –

THUNK – 74. What Reason is For –

THUNK – 95. Duverger’s Law & Ingroup Bias

This election is divisive, both in & between parties. Unfortunately, our brains don’t work too well in groups.

*Links for the Curious*

Evidence of an increasing division between political parties in the US –

Tajfel et al’s 1971 paper demonstrating that even totally arbitrary grouping does weird stuff to human brains –

A study about how ingroup/outgroup bias can color what characteristics people are quick to assign to their ingroup/outgroup –

Evidence that we show greater affinity for ingroup members who promote the group’s distinctiveness over those who try to be more evenhanded –

A study showing that simply framing a political argument as coming from the ingroup increases its acceptance dramatically –

Groups also make us prone to riskier behavior, arriving at more extreme conclusions together than we would on our own –

THUNK – 94. #parsimonygate & Occam’s Razor

Occam’s Razor is an important philosophical tool, & it played a central role in the #parsimonygate kerfuffle on Twitter. Learn exactly how it works!

-Links for the Curious-

The Cladistics editorial that kicked this whole thing off –

A fantastic article on Wired about #parsimonygate –

An interesting blog post on the issue –

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy’s entry on ontological parsimony –

My sister’s *fantastic* hand-written notes –

THUNK – 93. Mathematics: Discovered or Invented?

Is mathematics discovered or invented? Is it the language which encodes the cosmos, or an imaginary human tool? Does mathematics, in its pure abstraction, tap the inherent nature of the universe…or is it just our imagination? In the longest THUNK video yet, we dive into the metaphysics of mathematics, & the seemingly unanswerable questions therein.

-Links for the Curious-

“Contact ET Using Math? Not So Fast.” A lecture at SETI by mathematician & philosopher Keith Devlin –

“The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences,” by Eugene Wigner –

“Is Math a Feature of the Universe or a Feature of Human Creation?” by PBS Idea Channel –

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy on:
Mathematical Platonism –
Mathematical Nominalism –
Logicism –
Fictionalism –
Abstract Objects –
General Mathematics –

Hilarious SMBC comic on “pure math” –

THUNK – 92. Fermat’s Last Theorem

Fermat’s Last Theorem: a fairy tale of dramatic mathematics.

-Links for the Curious-

An invaluable Numberphile video about Fermat’s Last Theorem –

Wiles’s proof of the modularity theorem for elliptic curves (& Fermat’s last theorem) –

List of things named after Pierre de Fermat –

THUNK – 91. Spanking & Anecdotal Evidence

A recent study shows spanking probably isn’t a good idea, but almost everyone has a story that says otherwise. Learn where anecdotal evidence is useful, and (perhaps more importantly), where it isn’t.

-Links for the Curious-

Spanking and Child Outcomes: Old Controversies and New Meta-Analyses –

An article summarizing the study’s major points & interview with Gershoff, where the first comment cites anecdotal evidence to rebut the findings –

An example of the type of bias mentioned in the video –

THUNK – 90. Science vs. Philosophy, an Ancient (Non-)Debate

Many scientists call philosophy pointless pondering. They may not know they’re reading a very old script. Learn about the empiric & rationalist schools of medicine from ancient Greece, & how their ideologies play into thought in the modern world.

-Links for the Curious-

Bill Nye’s kerfuffle-causing video response –

The SEP’s summary of the modern version of the empiricist/rationalist divide –

THUNK – 89. The Just World Fallacy

The Just World Fallacy: your brain’s irrational attempt to make sense of a world where Firefly got cancelled.

-Links for the Curious-

An overview of research into the just world fallacy –

Do Innocent Victims Threaten the Belief in a Just World? –

Some evidence of an unjust world –