THUNK – 97. Autonomous Vehicle Ethics…?

There’s a lot of talk about the ethics of autonomous vehicles…but maybe it’s not as big a deal as people are making it.

-Links for the Curious-

Patrick Lin’s “The Ethical Dilemma of Self-Driving Cars – www.youtube.com/watch?v=ixIoDYVfKA0

“Why Self-Driving Cars Must be Programmed to Kill” – www.technologyreview.com/s/542626/why-self-driving-cars-must-be-programmed-to-kill/

“How to Help Self-Driving Cars Make Ethical Decisions” – www.technologyreview.com/s/539731/how-to-help-self-driving-cars-make-ethical-decisions/

A chapter from a book on autonomous vehicles written by Lin, detailing many of his arguments for ethical AV design – goo.gl/OKgisk

“Reciprocal Collision Avoidance for Multiple Car-like Robots”, a paper detailing many of the challenges of creating networked automated vehicles (let alone independent ones) – www.disneyresearch.com/wp-content/uploads/alonsomora12icra_paper.pdf

“Driver Killed While Using Tesla’s ‘Autopilot’ Feature” – www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/tesla-autopilot-accident-crash-death_us_577584afe4b0a629c1a95099

Some details about the Apple petition to ban the use of toxic chemicals in some of their manufacturing facilities – blog.greenamerica.org/2014/08/14/victory-apple-to-remove-two-potent-toxins-from-supplier-factories/

THUNK – 96. The Replication Crisis & Belief Perseverence

The sciences are dealing with a crisis of replication…and that’s a *good* thing. How might we learn from them?

-Links for the Curious-

“Psychology is in Crisis Over Whether It’s in Crisis” – www.wired.com/2016/03/psychology-crisis-whether-crisis/

“1500 scientists lift the lid on reproducibility” – www.nature.com/news/1-500-scientists-lift-the-lid-on-reproducibility-1.19970?WT.mc_id=SFB_NNEWS_1508_RHBox

Self-enhancement & belief perseverance – www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022103107000686

Abstract & concrete data in the perseverance of social theories: When weak data lead to unshakeable beliefs – www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022103183900318

Perseverance in self-perception and social perception: biased attributional processes in the debriefing paradigm – www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1185517

THUNK – 86. Cognitive Biases & the Socratic Method – www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZO-CGN78gdY

THUNK – 72. Logic – www.youtube.com/watch?v=_P5AkmnMf4E

THUNK – 73. Rigor – www.youtube.com/watch?v=l3uDwNUVieQ

THUNK – 74. What Reason is For – www.youtube.com/watch?v=1-ozUrg7HnU

THUNK – 95. Duverger’s Law & Ingroup Bias

This election is divisive, both in & between parties. Unfortunately, our brains don’t work too well in groups.

*Links for the Curious*

Evidence of an increasing division between political parties in the US – www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.polisci.9.070204.105138

Tajfel et al’s 1971 paper demonstrating that even totally arbitrary grouping does weird stuff to human brains – www.morilab.net/gakushuin/Tajfel_et_al_1971.pdf

A study about how ingroup/outgroup bias can color what characteristics people are quick to assign to their ingroup/outgroup – www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022103199913999

Evidence that we show greater affinity for ingroup members who promote the group’s distinctiveness over those who try to be more evenhanded – www.researchgate.net/publication/234023326_Castelli_Carraro_EJSP_2010

A study showing that simply framing a political argument as coming from the ingroup increases its acceptance dramatically – www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022103116301056

Groups also make us prone to riskier behavior, arriving at more extreme conclusions together than we would on our own – deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/108371

THUNK – 94. #parsimonygate & Occam’s Razor

Occam’s Razor is an important philosophical tool, & it played a central role in the #parsimonygate kerfuffle on Twitter. Learn exactly how it works!

-Links for the Curious-

The Cladistics editorial that kicked this whole thing off – onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cla.12148/epdf?utm_content=buffere6159&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer

A fantastic article on Wired about #parsimonygate – www.wired.com/2016/02/twitter-nerd-fight-reveals-a-long-bizarre-scientific-feud/

An interesting blog post on the issue – aguidetoacademia.blogspot.com/2016/02/parsiomygate-perspective-of-reformed.html?m=1

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy’s entry on ontological parsimony – plato.stanford.edu/entries/simplicity/#OntPar

My sister’s *fantastic* hand-written notes – imgur.com/a/2SAyl

THUNK – 93. Mathematics: Discovered or Invented?

Is mathematics discovered or invented? Is it the language which encodes the cosmos, or an imaginary human tool? Does mathematics, in its pure abstraction, tap the inherent nature of the universe…or is it just our imagination? In the longest THUNK video yet, we dive into the metaphysics of mathematics, & the seemingly unanswerable questions therein.

-Links for the Curious-

“Contact ET Using Math? Not So Fast.” A lecture at SETI by mathematician & philosopher Keith Devlin – www.youtube.com/watch?v=KveKjHIipgo

“The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences,” by Eugene Wigner – www.dartmouth.edu/~matc/MathDrama/reading/Wigner.html

“Is Math a Feature of the Universe or a Feature of Human Creation?” by PBS Idea Channel – www.youtube.com/watch?v=TbNymweHW4E

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy on:
Mathematical Platonism – plato.stanford.edu/entries/platonism-mathematics/
Mathematical Nominalism – plato.stanford.edu/entries/nominalism-mathematics/
Logicism – plato.stanford.edu/entries/logicism/
Fictionalism – plato.stanford.edu/entries/fictionalism-mathematics/
Abstract Objects – plato.stanford.edu/entries/abstract-objects/
General Mathematics – plato.stanford.edu/entries/philosophy-mathematics/

Hilarious SMBC comic on “pure math” – www.smbc-comics.com/index.php?id=4130

THUNK – 92. Fermat’s Last Theorem

Fermat’s Last Theorem: a fairy tale of dramatic mathematics.

-Links for the Curious-

An invaluable Numberphile video about Fermat’s Last Theorem – www.youtube.com/watch?v=qiNcEguuFSA

Wiles’s proof of the modularity theorem for elliptic curves (& Fermat’s last theorem) – www.math.ias.edu/~anindya/fermat.pdf

List of things named after Pierre de Fermat – en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_things_named_after_Pierre_de_Fermat

THUNK – 91. Spanking & Anecdotal Evidence

A recent study shows spanking probably isn’t a good idea, but almost everyone has a story that says otherwise. Learn where anecdotal evidence is useful, and (perhaps more importantly), where it isn’t.

-Links for the Curious-

Spanking and Child Outcomes: Old Controversies and New Meta-Analyses – psycnet.apa.org/?&fa=main.doiLanding&doi=10.1037/fam0000191

An article summarizing the study’s major points & interview with Gershoff, where the first comment cites anecdotal evidence to rebut the findings – www.minnpost.com/second-opinion/2016/05/spanking-worsens-childrens-behavior-and-linked-long-term-harms-analysis-50-ye

An example of the type of bias mentioned in the video – www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11469313

THUNK – 90. Science vs. Philosophy, an Ancient (Non-)Debate

Many scientists call philosophy pointless pondering. They may not know they’re reading a very old script. Learn about the empiric & rationalist schools of medicine from ancient Greece, & how their ideologies play into thought in the modern world.

-Links for the Curious-

Bill Nye’s kerfuffle-causing video response – bigthink.com/videos/bill-nye-on-philosophy

The SEP’s summary of the modern version of the empiricist/rationalist divide – plato.stanford.edu/entries/rationalism-empiricism/

THUNK – 89. The Just World Fallacy

The Just World Fallacy: your brain’s irrational attempt to make sense of a world where Firefly got cancelled.

-Links for the Curious-

An overview of research into the just world fallacy – www.brocku.ca/psychology/people/Hafer_Begue_05.pdf

Do Innocent Victims Threaten the Belief in a Just World? – www.brocku.ca/psychology/people/stroop.pdf

Some evidence of an unjust world – reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/PAND_report.pdf

Music: www.purple-planet.com

THUNK – 88. Hume’s Guillotine & Rational Morality

Hume saw problems using facts to justify morals. Learn about Hume’s Guillotine & where reason fits in morality!

-Links for the Curious-

Hume’s “A Treatise of Human Nature” – www.gutenberg.org/files/4705/4705-h/4705-h.htm#link2H_4_0004

GE Moore’s “Principia Ethica,” a text that puts forward a similar argument by different means – fair-use.org/g-e-moore/principia-ethica/s.13

A list of philosophical responses to the is/ought problem – en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Is%E2%80%93ought_problem#Responses

Related THUNK episodes:



THUNK – 87. Encryption & Quantum Computing

The FBI is asking Apple to help them crack an iPhone’s encryption, but that’s not the whole story. Learn how encryption & code signing work, & how quantum computers might pose a threat to both!

-Links for the Curious-

Physics Girl video on quantum cryptography, using quantum physics to *improve* encryption – www.youtube.com/watch?v=UiJiXNEm-Go

A fantastic Computerphile video on public key cryptography – www.youtube.com/watch?v=GSIDS_lvRv4

Apple’s code signing overview – developer.apple.com/library/mac/documentation/Security/Conceptual/CodeSigningGuide/Introduction/Introduction.html

THUNK – 86. Cognitive Biases & the Socratic Method

Human thought has hundreds of hard-wired bugs. The Socratic Method gives us a fighting chance to overcome them.

-Links for the Curious-

Paper describing evidence & several implications of availability bias – people.umass.edu/biep540w/pdf/Tversky%20availability.pdf

Paper describing evidence & several implications of confirmation bias – landman-psychology.com/ConfirmationBias.pdf

Wikipedia’s list of cognitive biases – en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

THUNK episode 73 on mental rigor – www.youtube.com/watch?v=l3uDwNUVieQ

THUNK episode 64 on the argumentative theory of human reason – www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cduyyif7BVY

THUNK – 85. Evolution & the Purple Sock

A newly-discovered creature called “the purple sock” reveals & confirms some of the inner workings of evolution!

-Links for the Curious-

The article in question, “New deep-sea species of Xenoturbella and the position of Xenacoelomorpha”, by Rouse et. al. – www.nature.com/nature/journal/v530/n7588/full/nature16545.html

Optimization Theory in Evolution, by J. Maynard Smith, 1978 – www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.es.09.110178.000335?journalCode=ecolsys.1

An interesting theory about the development of chlorophyll-based life being preceded by creatures which absorbed *only* green light – www.livescience.com/1398-early-earth-purple-study-suggests.html

The Tree of Life web project, a browsable index of taxonomy – tolweb.org/tree/

Also, if you don’t think it’s cool that the theory of evolution predicted that the sun had to be much, much older than the physics of nuclear fission said it must be, preempting the discovery of fusion, you can just get out of my face.

THUNK – 84. Why Prejudice is Impractical

Most agree that prejudice is wrong, but it’s not just an ethical problem; it’s a practical one, for *everyone.*

-Links for the Curious-

The Harvard Implicit Association Test – implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/takeatest.html

A Report from the Department of Labor’s Federal Glass Ceiling Commission – www.dol.gov/oasam/programs/history/reich/reports/ceiling2.pdf

Carter, Simkins & Simpson’s 2003 paper “Corporate Governance, Board Diversity, and Firm Value” – onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1540-6288.00034/abstract

Dame Stephanie Shirley’s TED talk “Why do Ambitious Women Have Flat Heads?” – www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ftow7dSpaiY

A Forbes article about the effects of more women in the workforce – www.forbes.com/sites/lisaquast/2011/02/14/causes-and-consequences-of-the-increasing-numbers-of-women-in-the-workforce/#154ee7a41c76

A reminder that sexism isn’t a deliberate choice tp be a jerk, it’s often what seems reasonable – www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2016/01/23/kansas-senator-ladies-no-mini-skirts-please/79223156/

THUNK – 83. CRISPR & Genetic Engineering

CRISPR is making big waves in biology, and for good reason; the doors to genetic engineering are now wide open.

QUICK ADDENDUM: The CRISPR method is currently only used to modify germline genomes (fertilized eggs), not fully-grown organisms. (That’s why I stress the “new humans” angle.) We have methods to achieve that sort of modification (viruses mostly), but CRISPR just lets us rewrite one DNA at a time really really efficiently.

SECOND ADDENDUM: I said in this episode that high IQ is correlated with depression. This is a highly contentious statement, with no compelling evidence. However, there are good reasons to believe that high IQ is related to bipolar disorder: sengifted.org/archives/articles/the-impact-of-giftedness-on-psychological-well-being

-Links for the Curious-

This video is only possible because my amazing sister put together a summary of CRISPR that I could wrap my head around. They’re available here – imgur.com/a/PIvv5

A fantastic compilation of CRISPR/Cas9 papers – wwwuser.cnb.csic.es/~montoliu/

A Reddit AMA from Paul Knoepfler, one of the pioneers of CRISPR – www.reddit.com/r/science/comm

A Nature article on the newly-formed “biohacker” amateur genetics movement – www.nature.com/news/biohackers

THUNK – 82. Special Relativity

Many people think special relativity is just for astrophysics majors, but its basic assumptions are pretty easy!

-Links for the Curious-

The derivation of the speed of light from Maxwell’s equations for electromagnetic waves – www.santarosa.edu/~lwillia2/42/WaveEquationDerivation.pdf

The Hafele-Keating experiment, demonstrating the time dilation effect of special relativity – en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hafele%E2%80%93Keating_experiment

A great video by a high school student explaining relativity – www.iflscience.com/physics/teenager-wins-400000-his-video-explaining-einsteins-theory-relativity

THUNK – 81. Optimism Bias, Anticipation, & STAR WARS

Cynics assume everything sucks until proven otherwise…should we use that approach for the new Star Wars movie?

-Links for the Curious-

Yahtzee’s Zero Punctuation E3 Massacre 2008, featuring the Cynic’s Punnet Square – www.youtube.com/watch?v=3wdfFuO3Rqs

Optimism bias in drivers – www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0001457589900249

Optimism bias in marriages – psp.sagepub.com/content/31/2/198.short

Optimism bias in time estimates – psp.sagepub.com/content/23/3/238.short

“Waiting for Merlot: Anticipatory Consumption of Material & Experiential Purchases,” by Kumar, Killingsworth, & Gilovich, 2014 – pss.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/08/21/0956797614546556.abstract

No but seriously guys I’m super excited.

THUNK – 80. Political Correctness

Why do anti-PC advocates claim that political correctness is pointless? Why do PC advocates argue among themselves?

(Trigger warning: references to PTSD, sexual assault.)

-Links for the Curious-

A review of research on Social Dominance Theory – isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic895260.files/PrattoSidaniusLevin_2006.pdf

A summary of Construal Level Theory – www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3152826/

Josh’s Top Ten Tabletop Games:

10. Love Letter
9. Skull
8. Machi Koro
7. Settlers of Catan
6. Robo Rally
5. Suburbia
4. Galaxy Truckers
3. Cosmic Encounter
2. Tales of the Arabian Nights
1. Sherlock Holmes: Consulting Detective

THUNK – 79. Science, Pseudoscience, & the Demarcation Problem

Science rules, & pseudoscience drools…but which is which? Learn about Kuhn, Popper, & the demarcation problem!

-Links for the Curious-

A brief summary by Popper of his principle of falsificationism – www.stephenjaygould.org/ctrl/popper_falsification.html

“The Structure of Scientific Revolutions,” by Thomas Kuhn – projektintegracija.pravo.hr/_download/repository/Kuhn_Structure_of_Scientific_Revolutions.pdf

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy’s fantastic entry on science & pseudoscience – plato.stanford.edu/entries/pseudo-science/

THUNK – 78. Steampunk, Babbage, & Lovelace

Steampunk is cool, but what’s cooler is how it almost happened! Learn about Charles Babbage & Ada Lovelace!

Also, happy 2nd THUNKiversary!

-Links for the Curious-

Ada Lovelace’s notes on the Analytical Engine – www.fourmilab.ch/babbage/sketch.html

Babbage’s Analytical Engine Wiki page – en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analytical_Engine

The Edison, a steampunk-themed bar – www.edisondowntown.com/

The webpage for Ada Lovelace Day, a national holiday celebrating & raising awareness of women in science – findingada.com/