THUNK – 107. Graham’s Number & Number Sense

Graham’s number is…really really big. But our brains start throwing errors at much smaller quantities.

-Links for the Curious-

Numberphile’s fantastic video of Ron Graham explaining Graham’s number –

“Two Systems of Non-Symbolic Numerical Cognition” by D. Hyde, a review of research on the two psychological systems for cognitive representation of number –

A summary of some landmark studies regarding the cognitive representation of number –

A great Wikipedia summary of some of the creatures which have demonstrated some capacity for number sense –

A study showing the gradual “linearization” of the approximate number system’s logarithmic error allowance during childhood –

An analysis of possible evolutionary reasons the approximate number system is mapped logarithmically –

The 2014 paper which improved on Graham’s upper limit to his Ramsey theorem question –

THUNK – 106. The Toulmin Method of Argumentation

Think you may get into some arguments during the holidays? Steven Toulmin & Reddit can help.

-Links for the Curious-

“The Uses of Argument” by Steven Toulmin –

A summary of the Toulmin method as rendered by Colorado State University –

Winning Arguments: Interaction Dynamics and Persuasion
Strategies in Good-faith Online Discussions

THUNK – 105. Why Elections Suck

There are a lot of people unhappy with the most recent presidential election in the US, & they have good reason – it needs fixing.

-Links for the Curious-

FairVote, an organization advocating for more representative & fair electoral systems –

A simple online tool to determine who your elected representatives are. (Protip: phonecalls are harder to ignore.) –

A paper by the EAC detailing the historical basis of the electoral college & some of its flaws –

C.G.P. Grey’s fantastic series “Politics in the Animal Kingdom” –

THUNK Episode 95 – Duverger’s Law & Ingroup Bias –

THUNK Episode 104 – Ethics Overview & Moral Voting –

Podcast 1 – Simone Chavoor on the Argumentative Theory of Human Reason

In this podcast, I discuss THUNK episode 64 with Simone Chavoor, a writer, marketing guru, and trivia master from Oakland, California. We talk about cognitive biases, the recent election, serial killers, vacuum metastability events, & birthing.

Some links for flavor:

The THUNK episode in question –

An article about Charles Manson’s “How to Win Friends & Influence People” turning point –

Bloody Code (from Simone’s Wiki-Walk) –

The Ultimate Fate of the Universe (from Josh’s Wiki-Walk) –

Elephant birthing video –

Giraffe birthing video –

THUNK – 104. Ethics Overview & Moral Voting

Some believe that voting a certain way this election is right/wrong. Let’s look at some ethics & see why.

-Links for the Curious-

First thing’s first, a shout-out to my friend Kevin Greenlee (who’s got legit degrees in philosophy & doctrinal theology). His fascinating article on Christian morality in this election is what kicked this whole thing off –

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy’s brilliant summary of deontology –

On consequentialism –

On virtue ethics –

A summary of Bentham’s utilitarianism –

A summary of Kant’s CI from MIT –

GEM Anscombe’s “Modern Moral Philosophy,” which kicked off the modern revival of virtue ethics –

THUNK – 103. On Rand-Bashing

Ayn Rand & her “selfish” ideology of objectivism produce both fervor & ridicule…but why?

-Links for the Curious-

A searchable online repository of Rand’s writings (including all quotes cited here) –

Branden’s retrospective personal statement regarding the character of Rand, her philosophy, & her “collective” –

The Partially Examined Life does a *very* charitable reading & conservative rebuttal of many of Rand’s philosophical works –

The evolutionary origin of human hyper-cooperation (an observation of the role of altruism in evolutionary biology that prima facie refutes many of Rand’s claims) –

THUNK – 102. Dimensional Analysis

Dimensional analysis is awesome, but human brains are depressingly easy to distract with number-crunching.

-Links for the Curious-

Randall Monroe’s “what if?” blog –

A simplified version of Maxwell’s dimensional analysis of the speed of light –

A history of units & dimensional analysis –

Sources of Mathematical Thinking, Dehaene et. al. 1999 –

Summary of the paper from MIT news –

THUNK – 99. Braitenberg’s “Vehicles” & the Chinese Room

Braitenberg’s “Vehicles,” Searle’s Chinese room, & Cole’s “Virtual Minds” – some thoughts on thinking machines.

-Links for the Curious-

Some selections from Valentino Braitenberg’s “Vehicles” –

Alan Turing’s fantastic 1950 paper “Computing Machinery & Intelligence” –

John Searle’s paper, cited over 5000 times, about the Chinese Room argument –

David Cole’s “Artificial Intelligence & Personal Identity,” where he posits the mechanism of virtual minds –

A quick note: the response that I end up advocating in the end here is spiritually similar to a sort of philosophical “Pragmatism.” If you’d like to read some more about it, check out its entry in the SEP here:

The SEP article on “functionalism,” one of the philosophies of mind characterized here –